Association of whole-grain and dietary fiber intake with cardiometabolic risk in children and adolescents
Fulgoni, V. L., Brauchla, M., Fleige, L., & Chu, Y. (2020). Association of whole-grain and dietary fiber intake with cardiometabolic risk in children and adolescents. Nutrition and Health, 26(3), 243-251. doi:10.1177/0260106020928664
Background: Diet is known to affect many risk factors of cardiovascular disease (CVD), a leading cause of mortality and morbidity. Aim: The objective of this study was to explore the potential association between whole grain and dietary fiber with CVD risk factors, including metabolic syndrome (MetS) in children and adolescents using National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2003–2014. Methods: Two days of 24-hour recall data from 16,507 children and adolescents age 2–18 years were used to estimate dietary intakes. Continuous MetS scores (cMetS) were computed by aggregating age/sex regressed z-scores of waist circumference, mean arterial blood pressure, high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, triglycerides, and glucose. Regression analyses were used to assess association of fiber and whole grain intake with cardiometabolic markers including MetS after adjusting for demographic factors. Results: Increasing tertiles of fiber intake were significantly associated with 3% lowered risk MetS in adolescents age 13–18 years. Additionally, increasing intake tertiles of fiber were associated with reduced risk elevated cholesterol (5–11% reduction), elevated diastolic blood pressure (10–23% reduction) in adolescents age 13–18 years, and risk of obesity (3–5% reduction) in children and adolescent age 2–18 years. Increasing tertiles of whole grain intake were only associated with reduced risk of elevated triglycerides (52% risk reduction) in adolescents age 13–18 years. Conclusion: The results suggest that intake of dietary fiber was inversely associated with several markers of cardiovascular disease risk including MetS.