Cost-effective options for increasing consumption of under-consumed food groups and nutrients in the United States
Brauchla, M., & Fulgoni, V. L. (2021). Cost-effective options for increasing consumption of under-consumed food groups and nutrients in the United States. Public Health Nutrition, 25(3), 710-716. doi:10.1017/S1368980021000537
Objective: To identify the most cost-effective options/contributors of under-consumed food groups and nutrients in the USA. Design: Twenty-four-hour dietary recall data were used for the dietary sources of under-consumed food groups and nutrients. Costs were estimated using USDA National Food Price Database 2001–2004 after adjustments for inflation using Consumer Price Index. Setting: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2013–2016. Participants: A total of 10 112 adults aged 19+ years. Results: Top five cost-effective options for food groups were apple and citrus juice, bananas, apples, and melons for fruit; baked/boiled white potatoes, mixtures of mashed potatoes, lettuce, carrots and string beans for vegetables; oatmeal, popcorn, rice, yeast breads and pasta/noodles/cooked grains for whole grain; and reduced-fat, low-fat milk, flavoured milk and cheese for dairy. Top five cost-effective sources of under-consumed nutrients were rice, tortillas, pasta/noodles/cooked grains, rolls and buns, and peanut butter–jelly sandwiches for Mg; grits/cooked cereals, low- and high-sugar ready-to-eat (RTE) cereal, rolls and buns, and rice for Fe; low- and high-sugar RTE cereals, rice, protein and nutritional powders, and rolls and buns for Zn; carrots, margarine, other red and orange vegetables, liver and organ meats, butter and animal fats for vitamin A; and citrus juice, other fruit juice, vegetable juice, mustard and other condiments, and apple juice for vitamin C. Conclusions: Apple/citrus juice, white potatoes/carrots, oatmeal, RTE cereals and milk were the most cost-effective food sources of multiple under-consumed food groups and nutrients and can help promote healthy eating habits at minimal cost.