Glycaemic and insulinaemic impact of oats soaked overnight in milk vs. cream of rice with and without sugar, nuts, and seeds: A randomized, controlled trial
Wolever, T. M. S., Jones, P. J. H., Jenkins, A. L., Mollard, R. C., . . . Chu, Y. F. (2019). Glycaemic and insulinaemic impact of oats soaked overnight in milk vs. cream of rice with and without sugar, nuts, and seeds: A randomized, controlled trial. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 73(1), 86-93. doi:10.1038/s41430-018-0329-1
Background/Objectives: Soaking oats overnight in milk renders them ready to eat the next morning, however, it is unknown whether oats prepared this way will retain its relatively low glycaemic and insulinaemic impact. Therefore, we compared the glycaemic, insulinaemic and subjective hunger responses elicited by oats soaked overnight in 110 g skim-milk (ONO) vs. cooked cream of rice cereal (CR), both with and without inclusions. Subjects/Methods: The project was performed at two research centers (Toronto, Winnipeg) as two separate studies each using a randomized, cross-over design with similar methods. The glycaemic and insulinaemic responses of overnight-fasted participants without diabetes (males:females: Toronto, 24:16; Winnipeg, 20:20) were measured for 3 h after consuming CR and ONO fed alone (Toronto) or with added sugar, nuts, and seeds (CRsns and ONOsns) (Winnipeg). Participants rated subjective hunger using visual analog scales. Data were analyzed by paired t-test. The primary endpoint was 0–2 h incremental area under the curve (iAUC) for glucose. Results: Mean glucose iAUC was 33% less, after ONO than CR (mean difference was 39 (51–27) mmol × min/l, p < 0.0001) and 24% less, after ONOsns than CRsns (mean difference was 43 (65–21) mmol × min/l, p = 0.0003). Serum-insulin iAUC was 33% less, after ONO than CR (mean difference 57 (81–40) pmol × hl, p < 0.0001) and 32% less, after ONOsns than CRsns (966 (1360–572) pmol × h/l, p < 0.0001). In both Toronto and Winnipeg, subjective hunger ratings were similar across the two treatments. Conclusions: Oats prepared by soaking overnight in skimmed milk without and with inclusions retain their relatively low glycaemic and insulinaemic impact.