Serum metabolomics reveals underlying mechanisms of cholesterol-lowering effects of oat consumption: A randomized controlled trial in a mildly hypercholesterolemic population
Xu, D., Wang, S., Feng, M., Shete, V., . . . Yang, Y. (2021). Serum metabolomics reveals underlying mechanisms of cholesterol-lowering effects of oat consumption: A randomized controlled trial in a mildly hypercholesterolemic population. Molecular Nutrition & Food Research, 65(9). doi:10.1002/mnfr.202001059
Introduction The purpose of this study is to examine the effects of oat supplementation on serum lipid in a population of adults with mild hypercholesterolemia and reveal the underlying mechanisms with serum untargeted metabolomics. Methods and Results In this placebo-controlled trial, 62 participants from Nanjing, China, with mild elevations in cholesterol are randomly assigned to receive 80 g oats (containing 3 g beta-glucan) or rice daily for 45 days. Fasting blood samples are collected at the beginning, middle, and end of the trial. Compared with the rice group, oat consumption significantly decreases serum total cholesterol (TC) (-8.41%, p = 0.005), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c) (-13.93%, p = 0.001), and non high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (non-HDL-c) (-10.93%, p = 0.017) levels. There are no significant between-group differences in serum triglyceride (TG), apolipoprotein B (Apo B), glycated albumin, or fasting blood glucose levels. An orthogonal partial least squares discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) suggests a clear separation in metabolic profiles between the groups after the intervention. Twenty-one metabolites in the oat group are significantly different from those in the rice group, among which 14 metabolites show a decreased trend. In comparison, seven metabolites show an increased trend. Correlations analysis from both groups indicate that most metabolites [e.g., sphinganine and phosphatidylcholine (PC)(20:5(5Z,8Z,11Z,14Z,17Z)/20:1(11Z))] have positive correlations with serum cholesterol levels. Kyoto Encyclopedia of Gene and Genomes pathway analysis suggests that oat consumption regulated glycerophospholipid, alanine, aspartate and glutamate, sphingolipid, and retinol metabolism. Conclusion Oat consumption has beneficial effects on serum lipids profiles. The underlying mechanisms involve glycerophospholipid, alanine, aspartate and glutamate, sphingolipid, and retinol metabolism in adults.