The timing of water and beverage consumption during the day among children and adults in the United States: Analyses of NHANES 2011–2016 data
Vieux, F., Maillot, M., Rehm, C. D., Barrios, P., & Drewnowski, A. (2019). The timing of water and beverage consumption during the day among children and adults in the United States: Analyses of NHANES 2011–2016 data. Nutrients, 11(11), 2707. doi:10.3390/nu11112707
Dietary Guidelines for Americans 2015–20 recommend replacing sugar sweetened beverages (SSBs) with plain water in order to promote adequate hydration while reducing added sugar intake. This study explored how water intakes from water, beverages, and foods are distributed across the day. The dietary intake data for 7453 children (4–18 y) and 15,263 adults (>19 y) came from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES 2011–2016). Water was categorized as tap or bottled. Beverages were assigned to 15 categories. Water intakes (in mL/d) from water, beverages, and food moisture showed significant differences by age group, meal occasion, and time of day. Plain water was consumed in the morning, mostly in the course of a morning snack and between 06:00 and 12:00. Milk and juices were consumed at breakfast whereas SSBs were mostly consumed at lunch, dinner, and in the afternoon. Children consumed milk and juices, mostly in the morning. Adults consumed coffee and tea in the morning, SSBs in the afternoon, and alcohol in the evening. Relatively little drinking water was consumed with lunch or after 21:00. Dietary strategies to replace caloric beverages with plain water need to build on existing drinking habits by age group and meal type.