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This section contains published content from 2010 to present. 

PepsiCo nutrition scientists are committed to the advancement of knowledge

The PepsiCo Health and Nutrition Sciences team studies the effects of nutrition on the human body, as well as the ingredients used in our products and their contribution to overall health and wellbeing. We invest in research that continues to explore the benefits of our current portfolio. This research contributes to the broader body of evidence within nutrition science to advance knowledge within the field.

These research endeavors are also used to educate practitioners and those in the nutrition science community, and to make evidence-based nutrition recommendations. This is accomplished globally by partnering with academic institutions, contract research organizations as well as trade associations, based on clearly stated hypotheses and an objective analysis.

This research utilizes the appropriate validated gold standard research methods which are monitored to ensure that the guiding principles underlying Good Clinical Practice standards are being followed.

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A section or division of a book focused on a research/scientific topic

A clinical trial in which humans/participants receive specific interventions/treatments according to the research plan created by the investigators

Epidemiology and Population Health Study

Study of distribution, determinants and impact of nutrition-related patterns and trends in specific populations

In Vitro Study

Study performed outside of a living organism, using experimental techniques such as cell culture

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A brief communication to a scientific journal’s editor/editorial team about a recent publication in the journal

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A study that describes or analyzes research methods

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A summary of previously published scientific work on a specific topic

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Systematic Review/Meta-Analysis

Systematic review is the summary of all scientific literature that fits predetermined eligibility criteria to answer a specific question / Meta-analysis uses statistical methods to analyze the results of multiple scientific studies

2021

  • In vitro – in vivo validation of stimulatory effect of oat ingredients on lactobacilli

    Duysburgh, C., Van den Abbeele, P., Kamil, A., Fleige, L., . . . Marzorati, M. (2021). In vitro-in vivo validation of stimulatory effect of oat ingredients on lactobacilli. Pathogens10(2), 235. doi:10.3390/pathogens10020235

     

    Abstract:

    The prebiotic activity of a commercially available oat product and a novel oat ingredient, at similar β-glucan loads, was tested using a validated in vitro gut model (M-SHIME®). The novel oat ingredient was tested further at lower β-glucan loads in vitro, while the commercially available oat product was assessed in a randomised, single-blind, placebo-controlled, and cross-over human study. Both approaches focused on healthy individuals with mild hypercholesterolemia. In vitro analysis revealed that both oat products strongly stimulated Lactobacillaceae and Bifidobacteriaceae in the intestinal lumen and the simulated mucus layer, and corresponded with enhanced levels of acetate and lactate with cross-feeding interactions leading to an associated increase in propionate and butyrate production. The in vitro prebiotic activity of the novel oat ingredient remained at lower β-glucan levels, indicating the prebiotic potential of the novel oat product. Finally, the stimulation of Lactobacillus spp. was confirmed during the in vivo trial, where lactobacilli abundance significantly increased in the overall population at the end of the intervention period with the commercially available oat product relative to the control product, indicating the power of in vitro gut models in predicting in vivo response of the microbial community to dietary modulation.

  • Pulse intake improves nutrient density among US adult consumers

    Mitchell, D. C., Marinangeli, C., Pigat, S., Bompola, F., . . . Rumney, J. (2021). Pulse intake improves nutrient density among US adult consumers. Nutrients13(8), 2668. doi:10.3390/nu13082668

     

    Abstract:

    The objective was to examine trends in pulse (dry beans, dry peas, chickpeas and lentils) intake over a 10-year period and to compare nutrient intakes of pulse consumers and non-consumers to better understand the impact of pulse consumption on diet quality in the US population. NHANES 2003–2014 data for respondents (≥19 years) with 2 days of intake was used to evaluate trends in pulse intake. Pulse consumers were identified as those NHANES respondents who consumed pulses on one or both days. Differences in energy adjusted nutrient intakes between non-consumers and consumers were assessed. There were no significant trends in pulse intakes for the total population or for pulse consumers over the 10-year period. In 2013–2014, approximately 27% of adults consumed pulses with an intake of 70.9 ± 2.5 g/day over 2 days, just slightly <0.5 cup equivalents/day. At all levels of consumption, consumers had higher (p < 0.01) energy adjusted intakes of fiber, folate, magnesium. Higher energy adjusted intakes for potassium, zinc, iron and choline and lower intakes of fat were observed for consumers than for non-consumers at intakes ≥69.4 ± 1.01 g/day. These data suggest that pulse consumption in the US population may result in better diet quality with diets that are more nutrient dense than those without pulses.

  • Serum metabolomics reveals underlying mechanisms of cholesterol-lowering effects of oat consumption: A randomized controlled trial in a mildly hypercholesterolemic population

    Xu, D., Wang, S., Feng, M., Shete, V., . . . Yang, Y. (2021). Serum metabolomics reveals underlying mechanisms of cholesterol-lowering effects of oat consumption: A randomized controlled trial in a mildly hypercholesterolemic population. Molecular Nutrition & Food Research, e2001059. doi:10.1002/mnfr.202001059

     

    Abstract:

    Introduction The purpose of this study is to examine the effects of oat supplementation on serum lipid in a population of adults with mild hypercholesterolemia and reveal the underlying mechanisms with serum untargeted metabolomics. Methods and Results In this placebo-controlled trial, 62 participants from Nanjing, China, with mild elevations in cholesterol are randomly assigned to receive 80 g oats (containing 3 g beta-glucan) or rice daily for 45 days. Fasting blood samples are collected at the beginning, middle, and end of the trial. Compared with the rice group, oat consumption significantly decreases serum total cholesterol (TC) (-8.41%, p = 0.005), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c) (-13.93%, p = 0.001), and non high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (non-HDL-c) (-10.93%, p = 0.017) levels. There are no significant between-group differences in serum triglyceride (TG), apolipoprotein B (Apo B), glycated albumin, or fasting blood glucose levels. An orthogonal partial least squares discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) suggests a clear separation in metabolic profiles between the groups after the intervention. Twenty-one metabolites in the oat group are significantly different from those in the rice group, among which 14 metabolites show a decreased trend. In comparison, seven metabolites show an increased trend. Correlations analysis from both groups indicate that most metabolites [e.g., sphinganine and phosphatidylcholine (PC)(20:5(5Z,8Z,11Z,14Z,17Z)/20:1(11Z))] have positive correlations with serum cholesterol levels. Kyoto Encyclopedia of Gene and Genomes pathway analysis suggests that oat consumption regulated glycerophospholipid, alanine, aspartate and glutamate, sphingolipid, and retinol metabolism. Conclusion Oat consumption has beneficial effects on serum lipids profiles. The underlying mechanisms involve glycerophospholipid, alanine, aspartate and glutamate, sphingolipid, and retinol metabolism in adults.

  • Sweet taste perceptions and preferences may not be associated with food intakes or obesity

    Kamil, A. & Wilson, A. R. (2021) Sweet taste perceptions and preferences may not be associated with food intakes or obesity. Nutrition Today, 56(2), 62-69, doi:10.1097/NT.0000000000000473

     

    Abstract:

    The topic of sweet taste and the relationship to health is one that has been of interest to researchers for many years. Recently, reduced consumption of sweet-tasting foods and beverages, regardless of how they are sweetened (ie, caloric or low/no-calorie sweeteners), has been recommended by some health authorities to encourage reduced sugar consumption. The hypothesized rationale is that human attraction to sweetness could increase the risk of developing less healthy eating patterns. This article summarizes the work presented by Professors Appleton and de Graaf on the topics of sweet taste perceptions and preferences, food intakes and obesity, during an American Society for Nutrition webinar on July 28, 2020, and finds little evidence to support this hypothesis.

  • Temporal dynamics of probiotic Lacticaseibacillus casei and rhamnosus abundance in a fermented dairy product evaluated using a combination of cultivation-dependent and -independent methods

    Berezhnaya, Y., Bikaeva, I.,  Gachkovskaia, A.,  Demidenko, A.,. . . Alexeev, D. Temporal dynamics of probiotic Lacticaseibacillus casei and rhamnosus abundance in a fermented dairy product evaluated using a combination of cultivation-dependent and -independent methods. LWT- Food Science and Technology, 148, 111750. doi:10.1016/j.lwt.2021.111750

     

    Abstract:

    Benchmark of cost-efficient and accurate methods for quantifying probiotics in dairy products represents great interest to the food industry. The advantages of cultivation-independent techniques over the traditionally used cultivation-based ones are to be investigated in this context. We evaluated the levels of Lacticaseibacillus casei and rhamnosus in multiple formulations of a fermented dairy product fortified with these probiotics during the shelf-life using cultivation, taxon-specific qPCR augmented with propidium monoazide (PMA) viability test and 16S rRNA gene sequencing. The analyzed products were the yogurts produced with traditional yogurts starter cultures including Bifidobacteria or without them. The effect of the starter culture on probiotics viability and abundance was assessed. The methods for probiotic profiling were compared. All methods confirmed high levels for the probiotics throughout the shelf-life. The PMA-qPCR showed that their non-viable proportion was low. The formulations with the starter cultures including Streptococcus and Lactobacillus were associated with a lower abundance of each probiotic compared to those that additionally had Bifidobacterium in the starter culture. The total microbial composition according to the sequencing was generally as expected, but the method was of limited use for profiling the probiotic levels due to the data compositionality and dominance of the starter culture taxa.

  • The effect of cereal β-glucan on body weight and adiposity: A review of efficacy and mechanism of action

    Mathews, R., Shete, V., & Chu, Y. (2021). The effect of cereal β-glucan on body weight and adiposity: A review of efficacy and mechanism of action. Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition. doi:10.1080/10408398.2021.1994523

     

    Abstract:

    The current review examines the totality of the evidence to determine if there exists a relationship between βglucan and body weight and adiposity and whether such a relationship is a consistent, causal and plausible one. Observational studies suggest an association between oat (i.e., βglucan) intake and reduced body weight, waist circumference and adiposity. High and moderate quality randomized controlled trials that were specifically designed to evaluate the efficacy of βglucan on anthropometric outcomes were given the highest weight. Several of these studies indicated a causal relationship between βglucan consumption and reduction in body weight, BMI, and at least one measure of body fat within diets that were not calorie-restricted. A review of additional animal and human evidence suggests multiple plausible mechanisms by which βglucan may impact satiety perception, gastric emptying, gut hormones, gut microbiota and short chain fatty acids in the complex interplay of appetite and energy regulation.

  • The effect of oat β-glucan on postprandial blood glucose and insulin responses: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    Zurbau, A., Noronha, J. C., Khan, T. A., Sievenpiper, J. L., & Wolever, T. (2021). The effect of oat β-glucan on postprandial blood glucose and insulin responses: a systematic review and meta-analysis. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 10.1038/s41430-021-00875-9. doi:10.1038/s41430-021-00875-9

     

    Abstract:

    To determine the effect of oat β‑glucan (OBG) on acute glucose and insulin responses and identify significant effect modifiers we searched the MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane databases through October 27, 2020 for acute, crossover, controlled feeding trials investigating the effect of adding OBG (concentrate or oat-bran) to carbohydrate-containing test-meals compared to comparable or different carbohydrate-matched control-meals in humans regardless of health status. The primary outcome was glucose incremental area-under-the-curve (iAUC). Secondary outcomes were insulin iAUC, and glucose and insulin incremental peak-rise (iPeak). Two reviewers extracted the data and assessed risk-of-bias and certainty-of-evidence (GRADE). Data were pooled using generic inverse-variance with random-effects model and expressed as ratio-of-means with [95% CIs]. We included 103 trial comparisons (N=538). OBG reduced glucose iAUC and iPeak by 23% (0.77 [0.74, 0.81]) and 28% (0.72 [0.64, 0.76]) and insulin by 22% (0.78 [0.72, 0.85]) and 24% (0.76 [0.65, 0.88]), respectively. Dose, molecular-weight, and comparator were significant effect modifiers of glucose iAUC and iPeak. Significant linear dose-response relationships were observed for all outcomes. OBG molecular-weight >300 kg/mol significantly reduced glucose iAUC and iPeak, whereas molecular-weight <300 kg/mol did not. Reductions in glucose iAUC (27 vs 20%, p=0.03) and iPeak (39 vs 25%, p<0.01) were significantly larger with different vs comparable control-meals. Outcomes were similar in participants with and without diabetes. All outcomes had high certainty-of-evidence. In conclusion, current evidence indicates that adding OBG to carbohydrate-containing meals reduces glycaemic and insulinaemic responses. However, the magnitude of glucose reduction depends on OBG dose, molecular-weight, and the comparator.

  • The prebiotic effects of oats on blood lipids, gut microbiota, and short-chain fatty acids in mildly hypercholesterolemic subjects compared with rice: A randomized, controlled trial

    Xu, D., Feng, M., Chu, Y., Wang, S., . . . Yang, Y. (2021). The prebiotic effects of oats on blood lipids, gut microbiota, and short-chain fatty acids in mildly hypercholesterolemic subjects compared with rice: A randomized, controlled trial. Frontiers in Immunology, 12, 5286. doi:10.3389/fimmu.2021.787797

     

    Abstract:

    Phytochemicals derived from oats are reported to possess a beneficial effect on modulating dyslipidemia, specifically on lowering total and LDL cholesterol. However, deeper insights into its mechanism remain unclear. In this randomized controlled study, we assigned 210 mildly hypercholesterolemic subjects from three study centers across China (Beijing, Nanjing, and Shanghai) to consume 80 g of oats or rice daily for 45 days. Plasma lipid profiles, short chain fatty acids (SCFAs), and fecal microbiota were measured. The results showed that total cholesterol (TC) and non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (non-HDL-C) decreased significantly with both oats and rice intake after 30 and 45 days. The reduction in TC and non-HDL-C was greater in the participants consuming oats compared with rice at day 45 (p = 0.011 and 0.049, respectively). Oat consumption significantly increased the abundance of Akkermansia muciniphila and Roseburia, and the relative abundance of DialisterButyrivibrio, and Paraprevotella, and decreased unclassified f-Sutterellaceae. In the oat group, Bifidobacterium abundance was negatively correlated with LDL-C (p = 0.01, r = −0.31) and, TC and LDL-C were negatively correlated to Faecalibacterium prausnitzii (p = 0.02, r = −0.29; p = 0.03, r = −0.27,respectively). EnterobacteriaceaeRoseburia, and Faecalibacterium prausnitzii were positively correlated with plasma butyric acid and valeric acid concentrations and negatively correlated to isobutyric acid. HDL-C was negatively correlated with valeric acid (p = 0.02, r = −0.25) and total triglyceride (TG) was positively correlated to isovaleric acid (p = 0.03, r = 0.23). Taken together, oats consumption significantly reduced TC and LDL-C, and also mediated a prebiotic effect on gut microbiome. Akkermansia muciniphilaRoseburiaBifidobacterium, and Faecalibacterium prausnitzii, and plasma SCFA correlated with oat-induced changes in plasma lipids, suggesting prebiotic activity of oats to modulate gut microbiome could contribute towards its cholesterol-lowering effect.

  • The role of oat nutrients in the immune system: A narrative review

    Chen, O., Mah, E., Dioum, E., Marwaha, A., . . . Chu, Y. (2021). The role of oat nutrients in the immune system: A narrative review. Nutrients13(4), 1048. doi:10.3390/nu13041048

     

    Abstract:

    Optimal nutrition is the foundation for the development and maintenance of a healthy immune system. An optimal supply of nutrients is required for biosynthesis of immune factors and immune cell proliferation. Nutrient deficiency/inadequacy and hidden hunger, which manifests as depleted nutrients reserves, increase the risk of infectious diseases and aggravate disease severity. Therefore, an adequate and balanced diet containing an abundant diversity of foods, nutrients, and non-nutrient chemicals is paramount for an optimal immune defense against infectious diseases, including cold/flu and non-communicable diseases. Some nutrients and foods play a larger role than others in the support of the immune system. Oats are a nutritious whole grain and contain several immunomodulating nutrients. In this narrative review, we discuss the contribution of oat nutrients, including dietary fiber (β-glucans), copper, iron, selenium, and zinc, polyphenolics (ferulic acid and avenanthramides), and proteins (glutamine) in optimizing the innate and adaptive immune system’s response to infections directly by modulating the innate and adaptive immunity and indirectly by eliciting changes in the gut microbiota and related metabolites.

  • Trends in vitamin C consumption in the United States: 1999–2018

    Brauchla, M., Dekker, M. J., & Rehm, C. D. (2021). Trends in vitamin C consumption in the United States: 1999–2018. Nutrients, 13(2), 420. doi:10.3390/nu13020420

     

    Abstract:

    Low intakes of fruits and vegetables have resulted in suboptimal intakes of several micronutrients, including vitamin C. This cross-sectional study used data from 84,902 children/adults (≥1 y) who completed a 24-h dietary recall as part of the United States National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (1999–2018). Mean vitamin C intakes from foods/beverages were calculated as were trends in major food/beverage sources of vitamin C. Percentages below the Estimated Average Requirement (EAR) were estimated. Overall, mean vitamin C consumption declined by 23% (97–75 mg/d; p-value for trend < 0.001). 100% fruit juice was the leading source of vitamin C (25.6% of total or 21.7mg/d), but this declined by 48% (25–13 mg/d; p-value for trend < 0.001). Whole fruit increased among children/adolescents (+75.8%;10–17 mg/d; p-value for trend < 0.001), but not adults, while the vegetable contribution was generally unchanged. The proportion of the population below the EAR increased by 23.8% on a relative scale or 9 percentage points on an absolute scale (38.3–47.4%). Declines in vitamin C intake is driven largely by decreases in fruit juice coupled with modest increases in whole fruit. Due to associations between vitamin C intake and numerous health outcomes these trends warrant careful monitoring moving forward.

  • Understanding whole grain awareness and consumption in select Indian cohorts

    Madan, J., Hussain, N., Joshi, S., Mehra, J., . . . Thomas, J. (2021). Understanding whole grain awareness and consumption in select Indian cohorts. Journal Indian Medical Association, 119(1), 88-94.

     

    Abstract:

    Background and Introduction: Grains are an integral part of Indian diet. Carbohydrates constitute to 60-70% of total daily calorie intake and grains are the key carbohydrate source. Including whole grains(WG) in the diet for its health benefits is recommended in dietary guidance around the world. There is consistent evidence to support existence of barriers to WG consumption in Indian population but limited evidence assessing their level of awareness and knowledge on WG. Thus, an independent survey was designed for assessing the level of awareness and consumption of WG amongst millennials and nutritionist and dieticians. Data collection and analysis: Tool employed was self-developed questionnaire. SPSS software and MS Excel were used for analysing data. Results: Only 2% of the surveyed millennials were aware of all aspects of WG. Nutritionists and dieticians showed better responses than millennials. Daily WG consumption in millennials was less than 10% (42 g/day) compared to total grain consumption (432g/day) across food categories. 50% nutritionists and dieticians consume oats for breakfast. Conclusion: Results highlight the importance of raising awareness on the knowledge and consumption of WG amongst urban Indian millennials. It also emphasises the need of national recommendations, encouraging consumers to make half of their total grain consumption as WG. A WG stamp from FSSAI for identification of products with considerable amount of WG and campaigns with public-private partnership supported by nutritionist, dietitians, culinary experts can further help in attaining the goal of a WG rich “Sustainable Healthy Diet” for a healthy living

  • Yogurt fortified with vitamins and probiotics impacts the frequency of upper respiratory tract infections but not gut microbiome: A multicenter double-blind placebo controlled randomized study

    Odintsova, V., Klimenko, N., Tyakht, A., Volokh, O., . . . Berezhnaya, Y. (2021). Yogurt fortified with vitamins and probiotics impacts the frequency of upper respiratory tract infections but not gut microbiome: A multicenter double-blind placebo controlled randomized study. Journal of Functional Foods, 83, 104572. doi:10.1016/j.jff.2021.104572

     

    Abstract:

    Probiotics and vitamins can impact immune responses and modulate gut microbiome. We evaluated the effects of consuming a yogurt fortified with vitamins and probiotic Lacticaseibacillus casei and rhamnosus on upper respiratory tract infections frequency and gut microbiome during a 3-month intervention. The study included 2 case groups (consuming different flavours) and a placebo group of healthy adults (n = 158–160 in each group). The effects on URTI-related parameters in both case groups were gender-specific. The female subjects had lower URTI incidence and frequency, while for the males no significant differences were found. The URTI duration was shorter in one of the probiotic groups for females and in both such groups - for males. The observed changes in microbiome composition, blood and stool parameters were not different from those observed in the placebo group. Consumption of fortified fermented dairy foods is promising for improving immunity status within the general population.

2020

  • A randomized, crossover study of the acute cognitive and cerebral blood flow effects of phenolic, nitrate and botanical beverages in young, healthy humans

    Jackson, P. A., Wightman, E. L., Veasey, R., Forster, J., . . . Kennedy, D. O. (2020). A randomized, crossover study of the acute cognitive and cerebral blood flow effects of phenolic, nitrate and botanical beverages in young, healthy humans. Nutrients, 12(8), 1-16. doi:10.3390/nu12082254

     

    Abstract:

    Background: In whole foods, polyphenols exist alongside a wide array of other potentially bioactive phytochemicals. Yet, investigations of the effects of combinations of polyphenols with other phytochemicals are limited. Objective: The current study investigated the effects of combining extracts of beetroot, ginseng and sage with phenolic-rich apple, blueberry and coffee berry extracts. Design: This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover design investigated three active beverages in 32 healthy adults aged 18–49 years. Each investigational beverage comprised extracts of beetroot, ginseng and sage. Each also contained a phenolic-rich extract derived from apple (containing 234 mg flavanols), blueberry (300 mg anthocyanins) or coffee berry (440 mg chlorogenic acid). Cognition, mood and CBF parameters were assessed at baseline and then again at 60, 180 and 360 min post-drink. Results: Robust effects on mood and CBF were seen for the apple and coffee berry beverages, with increased subjective energetic arousal and hemodynamic responses being observed. Fewer effects were seen with the blueberry extract beverage. Conclusions: Either the combination of beetroot, ginseng and sage was enhanced by the synergistic addition of the apple and coffee berry extract (and to a lesser extent the blueberry extract) or the former two phenolic-rich extracts were capable of evincing the robust mood and CBF effects alone.

  • A snack formulated with ingredients to slow carbohydrate digestion and absorption reduces the glycemic response in humans: A randomized controlled trial

    Rebello, C. J., Johnson, W. D., Pan, Y., Larrivee, S., . . . Greenway, F. L. (2020). A snack formulated with ingredients to slow carbohydrate digestion and absorption reduces the glycemic response in humans: A randomized controlled trial. Journal of Medicinal Food, 23(1), 21-28. doi:10.1089/jmf.2019.0097

     

    Abstract:

    This study compared the effect of a snack with ingredients to slow carbohydrate digestion (Test-snack) on postprandial blood glucose and insulin concentrations and subjective appetite ratings. We hypothesized that Test-snack would lower glucose and insulin responses and reduce appetite compared with a Control-snack. Overweight or obese subjects (n=17) completed a randomized crossover study. Glucose, insulin, and appetite ratings were measured before consuming each snack or white bread (Bread) and over a period of 4h. Subjects received Test-snack, Control-snack, or Bread in random order at least a week apart. The a priori primary outcome was the glucose response, and the secondary outcomes were appetite ratings and insulin responses. Mixed effects statistical models were used to perform analysis of variance in terms of the area under curve (AUC) and at specific time points. The 2-h AUC for glucose was significantly lower with Test-snack compared to Control-snack and Bread (AUC and 95% confidence intervals: Test=2186.43 [1783.36–2589.51]; Control=3293.75 [2893.97–3693.54]; Bread=2800.28 [2405.79–3194.77] mg/dL · min). Four-hour AUC for glucose, and insulin, followed a similar pattern except that Test-snack did not differ from Bread. The glucose concentrations peaked at 45min under all three conditions, but Test-snack elicited a lower response than Control-snack and Bread (P<.01). Test increased fullness and satisfaction and reduced hunger and prospective intake compared to Bread (P<.02), but was not significantly different from Control-snack. Ingredients that slow carbohydrate digestion in a snack reduce the postprandial glucose and insulin responses compared to a product without these ingredients.

  • Association of whole-grain and dietary fiber intake with cardiometabolic risk in children and adolescents

    Fulgoni, V. L., Brauchla, M., Fleige, L., & Chu, Y. (2020). Association of whole-grain and dietary fiber intake with cardiometabolic risk in children and adolescents. Nutrition and Health, 26(3), 243-251. doi:10.1177/0260106020928664

     

    Abstract:

    Background: Diet is known to affect many risk factors of cardiovascular disease (CVD), a leading cause of mortality and morbidity. Aim: The objective of this study was to explore the potential association between whole grain and dietary fiber with CVD risk factors, including metabolic syndrome (MetS) in children and adolescents using National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2003–2014. Methods: Two days of 24-hour recall data from 16,507 children and adolescents age 2–18 years were used to estimate dietary intakes. Continuous MetS scores (cMetS) were computed by aggregating age/sex regressed z-scores of waist circumference, mean arterial blood pressure, high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, triglycerides, and glucose. Regression analyses were used to assess association of fiber and whole grain intake with cardiometabolic markers including MetS after adjusting for demographic factors. Results: Increasing tertiles of fiber intake were significantly associated with 3% lowered risk MetS in adolescents age 13–18 years. Additionally, increasing intake tertiles of fiber were associated with reduced risk elevated cholesterol (5–11% reduction), elevated diastolic blood pressure (10–23% reduction) in adolescents age 13–18 years, and risk of obesity (3–5% reduction) in children and adolescent age 2–18 years. Increasing tertiles of whole grain intake were only associated with reduced risk of elevated triglycerides (52% risk reduction) in adolescents age 13–18 years. Conclusion: The results suggest that intake of dietary fiber was inversely associated with several markers of cardiovascular disease risk including MetS.

  • Avenanthramide supplementation reduces eccentric exercise-induced inflammation in young men and women

    Zhang, T., Zhao, T., Zhang, Y., Liu, T., . . . Ji, L. L. (2020). Avenanthramide supplementation reduces eccentric exercise-induced inflammation in young men and women. Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition, 17, 41. doi:10.1186/s12970-020-00368-3

     

    Abstract:

    Background: Avenanthramides (AVA) are a group of di-phenolic acids found only in oats and have shown antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects in vitro and in vivo. Eccentric muscle contraction is intimately involved in rigorous exercise that activates systemic and local inflammatory responses. The objective of the study is to evaluate whether chronic AVA supplementation could attenuate peripheral inflammatory and immunological markers in human subjects in response to an acute bout of downhill running (DR). Methods: Eleven male and thirteen female subjects voluntarily participated in this double-blinded, randomized controlled study and were randomly divided into AVA-supplemented (AVA) or control (C) groups. All subjects conducted a DR protocol at −10% grade with an intensity equivalent to 75% of their maximal heart rate. Blood samples were collected at rest and various time points (0-72h) after DR (PRE). After an 8-week washout period, participants received two cookies daily containing either 206mg/kg (AVA) or 0mg/kg (C) AVA for 8weeks. Following the oat supplementation regimen, the DR and blood sampling protocols were repeated (POST). Plasma inflammatory and immunological markers were measured using Multiplex immunoassay and muscle soreness was evaluated with pain rating scale. Results: DR increased plasma creatine kinase (CK) activity (P<0.01) during PRE, but the response was reduced at 24 and 48h during POST vs. PRE regardless of AVA status (P<0.05). Neutrophil respiratory burst (NRB) levels were elevated at 4 and 24h (P<0.05) during PRE but were significantly decreased at 0–48h during POST vs. PRE (P<0.05 or 0.01). Granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF), the neutrophil stimulating cytokine, was also increased in response to DR but showed lower levels in AVA compared to C during POST vs. PRE (P<0.05). Plasma interleukin-6 (IL-6) content showed an increase at 0 and 4h during PRE and 0h during POST (P<0.01), whereas during POST there was a trend toward a lower IL-6 level in AVA vs. C (P=0.082). Plasma levels of anti-inflammatory agent interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra) showed an increase at 4h during PRE, and was significantly elevated in AVA vs. C during POST. Both soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (sVCAM-1) and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) contents increased at 0 and 24h post DR during PRE as well as POST sessions, however, sVCAM-1 content was lower in AVA vs. C during POST (P<0.05) and MCP-1 levels were below resting level at 24, 48 and 72h during POST (P<0.05). DR increased muscle pain at all post-DR time points (P<0.01), but the pain level was alleviated by oat supplementation at 48 and 72h during POST regardless of AVA treatment (P<0.05). Conclusions: Oat AVA supplementation reduced circulatory inflammatory cytokines and inhibited expression of chemokines and cell adhesion molecules induced by DR.

  • Contribution of 100% fruit juice to micronutrient intakes in the United States, United Kingdom and Brazil

    Mitchell, E. S., Musa-Veloso, K., Fallah, S., Lee, H. Y., . . . Gibson, S. (2020). Contribution of 100% fruit juice to micronutrient intakes in the United States, United Kingdom and Brazil. Nutrients, 12(5), 1258. doi:10.3390/nu12051258

     

    Abstract:

    The contribution of 100% fruit juice (FJ) to the total daily intakes of energy, sugars, and select vitamins and minerals and to the recommended dietary allowances (RDAs) or adequate intake (AI) of these micronutrients was assessed in individuals reporting the consumption of 100% FJ in the national dietary intake surveys of the United States (U.S.; n = 8661), the United Kingdom (UK; n = 2546) and Brazil (n = 34,003). Associations of 100% FJ intake with the odds of being overweight or obese also were assessed. Data from the U.S. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2013–2014), the UK National Diet and Nutrition Survey (2012–2014), and Brazil’s Pesquisa de Orçamentos Familiares (2008–2009) were used, and all analyses were limited to individuals reporting consumption of 100% FJ on at least one day of the dietary intake survey. Approximately 34%, 37%, and 42% of individuals surveyed reported the consumption of 100% FJ on at least one day of the dietary intake survey in the U.S., UK, and Brazil, respectively, and the average daily intakes of 100% FJ were 184 g, 130 g, and 249 g, respectively. Across the 3 countries, 100% FJ contributed to 3–6% of total energy intakes, 12–31% of total sugar intakes, 21–54% of total vitamin C intakes, 1–12% of total vitamin A intakes, 4–15% of total folate intakes, 7–17% of total potassium intakes, 2–7% of total calcium intakes, and 4–12% of total magnesium intakes. In a multivariate logistic regression model, juice intake was associated with a significant reduction in the odds of being overweight or obese in UK adults (OR = 0.79; 0.63, 0.99), and significant increases in the odds of being overweight or obese in UK children (OR = 1.16; 1.01, 1.33) and Brazilian adults (OR = 1.04; 1.00, 1.09). Nutrient contributions of 100% FJ vary according to regional intake levels. In all three countries studied, 100% FJ contributed to more than 5% of the RDAs for vitamin C and folate. In the U.S. and Brazil, 100% FJ contributed to more than 5% of the RDA for magnesium and more than 5% of the AI for potassium.

  • Daily eating frequency in US adults: Associations with low-calorie sweeteners, body mass index, and nutrient intake (NHANES 2007–2016)

    Hunt, K. J., St. Peter, J. V., Malek, A. M., Vrana-Diaz, C., . . . Greenberg, D. (2020). Daily eating frequency in US adults: Associations with low-calorie sweeteners, body mass index, and nutrient intake (NHANES 2007–2016). Nutrients, 12(9), 1-16. doi:10.3390/nu12092566

     

    Abstract:

    Studies of relationships between eating frequency and/or timing and energy intake have not examined associations with low-calorie sweeteners (LCS). We assessed the frequency of eating behavior related to LCS consumption emphasizing timing, calorie intake, and body mass index (BMI) among United States (US) adults aged ≥19 years. Using the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2007–2016, we defined eating episodes as food and/or beverage intake within 15 min of one another over the first 24-h dietary recall. We coded items ingested during episodes (n = 136,938) and assessed LCS presence using US Department of Agriculture (USDA) food files. Episode analysis found intakes of foods only (27.4%), beverages only (29.5%), and foods with beverages (43.0%). LCS items were consumed without concurrent calories from other sources in fewer than 2.7% of all episodes. Within participants having normal weight (29.4%), overweight (33.6%) and obese (37.1%) BMIs, LCS consumers (35.2% overall) evidenced: more episodes/day; and fewer: calories, carbohydrates, fats, and protein per episode. Per person, those consuming LCS had lower total calories and higher fiber intake per day. LCS consumption was associated with higher BMI. Number of eating episodes/day and longer hours when eating episodes occurred were also consistently associated with higher BMI. Consuming LCS did not modify these relationships. These results did not show that LCS consumption was associated with increased caloric intake from other dietary sources.

  • Emerging science on whole grain intake and inflammation

    Sang S., Idehen E., Zhao Y., & Chu Y. (2020). Emerging science on whole grain intake and inflammation. Nutrition Reviews, 71(S1), 21-28. doi: 10.1093/nutrit/nuz079

     

    Abstract:

    Although the biological mechanisms surrounding the widely reported association between whole grain (WG) consumption and reduced risk of several diseases are not fully understood, there is growing evidence suggesting that inflammation may be an essential mediator in this multifaceted process. It also appears that several mechanisms influence the modulatory actions of WGs on inflammation, including the effect of fiber, phytochemicals, and their microbial-derived metabolites. While some of these effects are direct, others involve gut microbiota, which transform important bioactive substances into more useful metabolites that moderate inflammatory signaling pathways. This review evaluates emerging evidence of the relationship between WGs and their effects on markers of subclinical inflammation, and highlights the role of fiber, unique WG phytochemicals, and gut microbiota on the anti-inflammatory effects of WG intake.

  • Foreword: Overview of symposium on whole grains, dietary fiber, and public health

    Chu Y. F., Wang S., Liu F., Mathews R., & Chen J. (2020). Foreword: Overview of symposium on whole grains, dietary fiber, and public health. Nutrition Reviews, 78(S1), 1-5. doi:10.1093/nutrit/nuz066

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Index