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The PepsiCo Health and Nutrition Sciences team studies the effects of nutrition on the human body, as well as the ingredients used in our products and their contribution to overall health and wellbeing. We invest in research that continues to explore the benefits of our current portfolio. This research contributes to the broader body of evidence within nutrition science to advance knowledge within the field.

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A clinical trial in which humans/participants receive specific interventions/treatments according to the research plan created by the investigators

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Study of distribution, determinants and impact of nutrition-related patterns and trends in specific populations

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Systematic review is the summary of all scientific literature that fits predetermined eligibility criteria to answer a specific question / Meta-analysis uses statistical methods to analyze the results of multiple scientific studies

2021

  • Cost-effective options for increasing consumption of under-consumed food groups and nutrients in the United States

    Brauchla, M., & Fulgoni, V. L. (2021). Cost-effective options for increasing consumption of under-consumed food groups and nutrients in the United States. Public Health Nutrition, 25(3), 710-716. doi:10.1017/S1368980021000537

     

    Abstract:

    Objective: To identify the most cost-effective options/contributors of under-consumed food groups and nutrients in the USA. Design: Twenty-four-hour dietary recall data were used for the dietary sources of under-consumed food groups and nutrients. Costs were estimated using USDA National Food Price Database 2001–2004 after adjustments for inflation using Consumer Price Index. Setting: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2013–2016. Participants: A total of 10 112 adults aged 19+ years. Results: Top five cost-effective options for food groups were apple and citrus juice, bananas, apples, and melons for fruit; baked/boiled white potatoes, mixtures of mashed potatoes, lettuce, carrots and string beans for vegetables; oatmeal, popcorn, rice, yeast breads and pasta/noodles/cooked grains for whole grain; and reduced-fat, low-fat milk, flavoured milk and cheese for dairy. Top five cost-effective sources of under-consumed nutrients were rice, tortillas, pasta/noodles/cooked grains, rolls and buns, and peanut butter–jelly sandwiches for Mg; grits/cooked cereals, low- and high-sugar ready-to-eat (RTE) cereal, rolls and buns, and rice for Fe; low- and high-sugar RTE cereals, rice, protein and nutritional powders, and rolls and buns for Zn; carrots, margarine, other red and orange vegetables, liver and organ meats, butter and animal fats for vitamin A; and citrus juice, other fruit juice, vegetable juice, mustard and other condiments, and apple juice for vitamin C. Conclusions: Apple/citrus juice, white potatoes/carrots, oatmeal, RTE cereals and milk were the most cost-effective food sources of multiple under-consumed food groups and nutrients and can help promote healthy eating habits at minimal cost.

  • Effect of COVID-19 pandemic-induced dietary and lifestyle changes and their associations with perceived health status and self-reported body weight changes in India: A cross-sectional survey

    Madan, J., Blonquist, T., Rao, E., Marwaha, A., . . . Chen, O. (2021). Effect of COVID-19 pandemic-induced dietary and lifestyle changes and their associations with perceived health status and self-reported body weight changes in India: A cross-sectional survey. Nutrients, 13(11), 3682. doi:10.3390/nu13113682

     

    Abstract:

    Home confinement during the COVID-19 pandemic is accompanied by dramatic changes in lifestyle and dietary behaviors that can significantly influence health. We conducted an online cross-sectional survey to assess COVID-19 pandemic-induced dietary and lifestyle changes and their association with perceived health status and self-reported body weight changes among 1000 Indian adults in early 2021. Positive improvements in dietary habits, e.g., eating more nutritious (85% of participants) and home-cooked food (89%) and an increase in overall nutrition intake (79%), were observed. Sixty-five percent of participants self-reported increased oat consumption to support immunity. There were some negative changes, e.g., more binge eating (69%), eating more in between meals (67%), and increasing meal portion size (72%). Two-thirds of participants reported no change in lifestyles, whereas 21 and 23% reported an increase, and 13 and 10% reported a decrease in physical activity and sleep, respectively. Overall, 64 and 65% of participants reported an improvement in perceived health and an increase in body weight during the COVID-19 period compared to pre-COVID-19, respectively. The top motivations for improving dietary habits included improving physical and mental health and building immunity. In conclusion, the overall perceived health was improved and there was an increase in self-reported body weight in most participants during COVID-19. Diet emerged as the most crucial determinant for these changes.

  • Effect of oat β-glucan on affective and physical feeling states in healthy adults: Evidence for reduced headache, fatigue, anxiety and limb/joint pains

    Wolever, T. M. S., Rahn, M., Dioum, E. H., Jenkins, A. L., . . . Chu, Y. (2021). Effect of oat β-glucan on affective and physical feeling states in healthy adults: Evidence for reduced headache, fatigue, anxiety and limb/joint pains. Nutrients13(5), 1534. doi:10.3390/nu13051534

     

    Abstract:

    The gastrointestinal (GI) side-effects of dietary fibers are recognized, but less is known about their effects on non-GI symptoms. We assessed non-GI symptoms in a trial of the LDL-cholesterol lowering effect of oat β-glucan (OBG). Participants (n = 207) with borderline high LDL-cholesterol were randomized to an OBG (1 g OBG, n = 104, n = 96 analyzed) or Control (n = 103, n = 95 analyzed) beverage 3-times daily for 4 weeks. At screening, baseline, 2 weeks and 4 weeks participants rated the severity of 16 non-GI symptoms as none, mild, moderate or severe. The occurrence and severity (more or less severe than pre-treatment) were compared using chi-squared and Fisher’s exact test, respectively. During OBG treatment, the occurrence of exhaustion and fatigue decreased versus baseline (p < 0.05). The severity of headache (2 weeks, p = 0.032), anxiety (2 weeks p = 0.059) and feeling cold (4 weeks, p = 0.040) were less on OBG than Control. The severity of fatigue and hot flashes at 4 weeks, limb/joint pain at 2 weeks and difficulty concentrating at both times decreased on OBG versus baseline. High serum c-reactive-protein and changes in c-reactive-protein, oxidized-LDL, and GI-symptom severity were associated with the occurrence and severity of several non-GI symptoms. These data provide preliminary, hypothesis-generating evidence that OBG may reduce several non-GI symptoms in healthy adults.

  • Effect of processing on oat β-glucan viscosity, postprandial glycemic response and subjective measures of appetite

    Ames, N., Malunga, L. N., Mollard, R., Johnson, J., . . . Thandapilly, S. J. (2021). Effect of processing on oat β-glucan viscosity, postprandial glycemic response and subjective measures of appetite. Food & Function12(8), 3672–3679. doi:10.1039/d0fo03283b

     

    Abstract:

    Oat has procured its acclaim as a health promoting food partially due to its positive effect on glucose control. It has been demonstrated that oat β-glucan can interfere with postprandial glucose response. A large majority of this action is attributed to the increase in viscosity due to the β-glucan content in oat foods. While it is known that an increase in viscosity due to higher molecular weight of β-glucan can improve its glycemic effects, it is not known if an increase in viscosity attained by processing variables can further enhance the positive effect of oat on glucose control. In the current study we have examined the effect of kilning, tempering, microwaving, cooking, soaking and flaking on oat β-glucan viscosity. An acute randomized crossover clinical trial was also conducted to test oatmeal products containing low, medium and high β-glucan viscosity for their effect on postprandial glycemic response. Results from the processing experiments demonstrate that kilned samples, when tempered to 25% moisture and microwaved for 2 minutes, can produce much higher final viscosity compared to other samples with similar β-glucan content, molecular weight and solubility. However, results from the clinical trial show that the increase in the viscosity of the oat β-glucan attained through processing in this study did not have any effect on postprandial glucose control.

  • Effectiveness of a nutritional education intervention focused on iron among school children in National Capital Region and Mumbai

    Bharti, R., Marwaha, A., Badshah, T., Sengupta, R., . . . Bhatia, B. Effectiveness of a nutritional education intervention focused on iron among school children in National Capital Region and Mumbai. Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research, 15(4), OC31-OC36. doi:10.7860/JCDR/2021/46024.14806 

     

    Abstract:

    Introduction: Anaemia is a major health problem in India. Various studies mention poor nutrition knowledge and education as main factors of malnutrition. Aim: This study aims at assessing the effect of nutritional education on iron among school children. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional interventional study was undertaken to improve nutrition literacy in schools from April 2018 to February 2019. The outreach platform used was Eat Right School program by Food Safety and Standards Authority of India (FSSAI). A study tool employed was data collection using self-developed questionnaire for pre and post-intervention knowledge assessment. School children from Delhi NCR and Mumbai participated in this study. Knowledge intervention was done on 5 key elements related to iron including role, sources, iron deficiency anaemia, iron absorption and knowledge of fortification. Chi-square test was applied for comparison. Results: It was found that 54% (n=18,626) of school children studied were in the age group 11-14 years. From 27355 participants who reported the gender, 58.1% (n=15899) were males and 41.9% (n=11456) were females. Comparison of pre and post-intervention assessment revealed that percentage of students knowing importance/role of iron increased from 27.30% to 59.50%, iron deficiency anaemia from 34.03% to 59.85%, sources of iron from 25.20% to 51.70%, iron absorption from 36.00% to 61.2% and knowledge of fortification from 55.4% to 76.9%. Thus, significant shift (p≤0.001) in all the parameters was observed; improvement in scores ranged from 21.5% to 32.20% with highest increase seen in understanding the role of iron. Conclusion: Results of the study reject the null hypothesis leading to acceptance of alternate hypothesis. The alternate hypothesis highlights the role of nutrition education in improving the nutritional literacy of school children in the area of iron and iron deficiency anaemia. Results of the current study increased the knowledge of children on all parameters related to iron education module. Thus, nutritional literacy is imperative in improving nutritional status and adolescent age-group is the window of opportunity to correct it.

  • Estimated sweetness in US diet among children and adults declined from 2001 to 2018: A serial cross-sectional surveillance study using NHANES 2001–2018

    Kamil, A., Wilson, A. R., & Rehm, C. D. (2021). Estimated sweetness in US diet among children and adults declined from 2001 to 2018: A serial cross-sectional surveillance study using NHANES 2001–2018. Frontiers in Nutrition, 8. doi:10.3389/fnut.2021.777857 

     

    Abstract:

    An agreed-upon measure of total dietary sweetness is lacking hindering assessments of population-level patterns and trends in dietary sweetness. This cross-sectional study used 24-h dietary recall data for 74,461 participants aged ≥ 2 y from nine cycles (2001–2018) of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) to evaluate trends in the sweetness of the diet in the United States (US). LCS-containing items were matched to a sugar-sweetened counterpart (e.g., diet cola–regular cola or sucralose sugar). The matched pair was used to estimate the sugar equivalents from LCS-sweetened foods or beverages to estimate dietary level sweetness, which was described as grams of approximate sugar equivalent (ASE) per day. Trends in ASE were estimated overall and by subgroup, and trends were further disaggregated by food or beverage category. Overall, LCS sources contributed about 10.5% of ASE. Total ASE declined from 152 g/d to 117 g/d from 2001–2002 to 2017–2018 (p-trend < 0.001), with comparable declines in children and adults. Declines in total ASE were predominantly driven by beverages (−36.7% from 2001–2002 to 2017–2018) and tabletop sweeteners (−23.8%), but not food (−1.5%). Observed trends were robust to sensitivity analyses incorporating random, systematic, and sensory trial informed estimates of sweetness and also an analysis excluding possible under-reporters of dietary energy. This practical approach and underlying data may help researchers to apply the technique to other dietary studies to further these questions.

  • Fructans with varying degree of polymerization enhance the selective growth of bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis bb-12 in the human gut microbiome in vitro

    Van den Abbeele, P., Duysburgh, C., Ghyselinck, J., Goltz, S., . . . Marzorati, M. (2021). Fructans with varying degree of polymerization enhance the selective growth of bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis bb-12 in the human gut microbiome in vitro. Applied Sciences, 11(2), 598. doi:10.3390/app11020598

     

    Abstract:

    Synbiotics aim to improve gastrointestinal health by combining pre- and probiotics. This study evaluated combinations of Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis BB-12 with seven fructans: oligofructoses (OF1-OF2; low degree of polymerization (DP)), inulins (IN1-IN2-IN3; high DP) and OF/IN mixtures (OF/IN1-OF/IN2). During monoculture incubations, all fructans were fermented by BB-12 as followed from increased BB-12 numbers and increased acetate and lactate concentrations, with most pronounced fermentation for low DP fructans (OF1-OF2). Further, short-term colonic incubations for three human donors revealed that also in presence of a complex microbiota, all fructans (particularly OF1) consistently selectively enhanced the growth of BB-12. While each fructan as such already increased Bifidobacteriaceae numbers with 0.94–1.26 log(cells/mL), BB-12 co-supplementation additionally increased Bifidobacteriaceae with 0.17–0.46 log(cells/mL). Further, when co-supplemented with fructans, BB-12 decreased Enterobacteriaceae numbers (significant except for IN1-IN3). At metabolic level, all fructans decreased pH due to increased acetate and lactate production, while OF/IN2-IN1-IN2-IN3 also stimulated propionate and butyrate production. BB-12 co-supplementation further increased propionate and butyrate for OF/IN2-IN3 and IN1-IN2, respectively. Overall, combinations of BB-12 with fructans are promising synbiotic concepts, likely due to intracellular consumption of low DP-fructans by BB-12 (either present in starting product or released upon fermentation by indigenous microbes), thereby enhancing effects of the co-administered fructan.

  • Impact of sociodemographic factors on the consumption of tubers in Brazil

    Horodyska, J., Pigat, S., Wonik, J., Bompola, F., . . . Gonzalez, T. D. (2021). Impact of sociodemographic factors on the consumption of tubers in Brazil. Nutrition Journal20, 54. doi:10.1186/s12937-021-00709-1

     

    Abstract:

    Background Although tubers play a significant role in Brazilian agriculture, very little is known about the intake of tubers among the Brazilian population. The objective of this study was to characterize the intake of tubers across Brazil. The types of tubers consumed were quantified, and the impact of geographic and sociodemographic factors was assessed. Methods This cross-sectional study is based on dietary intake data of 33,504 subjects obtained from the Brazilian National Dietary Survey. All tuber containing foods were identified, and the contribution of different tubers to overall tuber consumption in Brazil was quantified. Descriptive analyses assessed the impact of macroregion and sociodemographic characteristics on tuber consumption, and differences in intake were assessed using statistical tests. Lastly, the dietary intakes of tuber consumers and non-consumers were compared after adjusting for energy and covariates to determine if there were any major differences in dietary intakes between the two groups. Results Fifty-five percent of the Brazilian population consumed tubers, which differed by macroregion. The intake of tubers among consumers also differed between macroregions. Overall, rural areas reported significantly higher mean daily intakes of tubers (122g/day) among tuber consumers than urban areas (95g/day). Mandioca and potato were the most commonly consumed tubers (59 and 43% prevalence, respectively, on any of the 2 days), while the highest daily intakes amongst tuber consumers across Brazil were noted for sweet potato (156g/day) and potato (95g/day). On a macroregion level, among tuber consumers, mandioca had the highest prevalence of consumption in the North (94%), Northeast (83%), and Central-West (68%), while consumption of potatoes was most prevalent in the Southeast (63%) and South (62%). Compared to women, small but significantly higher tuber intakes were noted for males (108 vs. 85g/day). There were no significant differences in intakes among income quintiles. After adjusting for energy and other covariates, nutrient intakes between tuber and non-tuber consumers were not meaningfully different, with the exception of sodium (+6.0% comparing non-tuber to tuber consumers), iron (+6.1%), zinc (+5.7%), vitamin C (+8.3%), riboflavin (+9.0%), and folate (+7.9%). Conclusions Tuber consumption is influenced by regional and sociodemographic characteristics of the Brazilian population. When looking at energy-adjusted nutrient intakes, diets of tuber consumers have resulted in somewhat lower intakes of some micronutrients, namely riboflavin, folate, vitamin C, iron, sodium, and zinc.

  • In vitro – in vivo validation of stimulatory effect of oat ingredients on lactobacilli

    Duysburgh, C., Van den Abbeele, P., Kamil, A., Fleige, L., . . . Marzorati, M. (2021). In vitro-in vivo validation of stimulatory effect of oat ingredients on lactobacilli. Pathogens10(2), 235. doi:10.3390/pathogens10020235

     

    Abstract:

    The prebiotic activity of a commercially available oat product and a novel oat ingredient, at similar β-glucan loads, was tested using a validated in vitro gut model (M-SHIME®). The novel oat ingredient was tested further at lower β-glucan loads in vitro, while the commercially available oat product was assessed in a randomised, single-blind, placebo-controlled, and cross-over human study. Both approaches focused on healthy individuals with mild hypercholesterolemia. In vitro analysis revealed that both oat products strongly stimulated Lactobacillaceae and Bifidobacteriaceae in the intestinal lumen and the simulated mucus layer, and corresponded with enhanced levels of acetate and lactate with cross-feeding interactions leading to an associated increase in propionate and butyrate production. The in vitro prebiotic activity of the novel oat ingredient remained at lower β-glucan levels, indicating the prebiotic potential of the novel oat product. Finally, the stimulation of Lactobacillus spp. was confirmed during the in vivo trial, where lactobacilli abundance significantly increased in the overall population at the end of the intervention period with the commercially available oat product relative to the control product, indicating the power of in vitro gut models in predicting in vivo response of the microbial community to dietary modulation.

  • Pulse intake improves nutrient density among US adult consumers

    Mitchell, D. C., Marinangeli, C., Pigat, S., Bompola, F., . . . Rumney, J. (2021). Pulse intake improves nutrient density among US adult consumers. Nutrients13(8), 2668. doi:10.3390/nu13082668

     

    Abstract:

    The objective was to examine trends in pulse (dry beans, dry peas, chickpeas and lentils) intake over a 10-year period and to compare nutrient intakes of pulse consumers and non-consumers to better understand the impact of pulse consumption on diet quality in the US population. NHANES 2003–2014 data for respondents (≥19 years) with 2 days of intake was used to evaluate trends in pulse intake. Pulse consumers were identified as those NHANES respondents who consumed pulses on one or both days. Differences in energy adjusted nutrient intakes between non-consumers and consumers were assessed. There were no significant trends in pulse intakes for the total population or for pulse consumers over the 10-year period. In 2013–2014, approximately 27% of adults consumed pulses with an intake of 70.9 ± 2.5 g/day over 2 days, just slightly <0.5 cup equivalents/day. At all levels of consumption, consumers had higher (p < 0.01) energy adjusted intakes of fiber, folate, magnesium. Higher energy adjusted intakes for potassium, zinc, iron and choline and lower intakes of fat were observed for consumers than for non-consumers at intakes ≥69.4 ± 1.01 g/day. These data suggest that pulse consumption in the US population may result in better diet quality with diets that are more nutrient dense than those without pulses.

  • Serum metabolomics reveals underlying mechanisms of cholesterol-lowering effects of oat consumption: A randomized controlled trial in a mildly hypercholesterolemic population

    Xu, D., Wang, S., Feng, M., Shete, V., . . . Yang, Y. (2021). Serum metabolomics reveals underlying mechanisms of cholesterol-lowering effects of oat consumption: A randomized controlled trial in a mildly hypercholesterolemic population. Molecular Nutrition & Food Research, 65(9). doi:10.1002/mnfr.202001059

     

    Abstract:

    Introduction The purpose of this study is to examine the effects of oat supplementation on serum lipid in a population of adults with mild hypercholesterolemia and reveal the underlying mechanisms with serum untargeted metabolomics. Methods and Results In this placebo-controlled trial, 62 participants from Nanjing, China, with mild elevations in cholesterol are randomly assigned to receive 80 g oats (containing 3 g beta-glucan) or rice daily for 45 days. Fasting blood samples are collected at the beginning, middle, and end of the trial. Compared with the rice group, oat consumption significantly decreases serum total cholesterol (TC) (-8.41%, p = 0.005), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c) (-13.93%, p = 0.001), and non high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (non-HDL-c) (-10.93%, p = 0.017) levels. There are no significant between-group differences in serum triglyceride (TG), apolipoprotein B (Apo B), glycated albumin, or fasting blood glucose levels. An orthogonal partial least squares discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) suggests a clear separation in metabolic profiles between the groups after the intervention. Twenty-one metabolites in the oat group are significantly different from those in the rice group, among which 14 metabolites show a decreased trend. In comparison, seven metabolites show an increased trend. Correlations analysis from both groups indicate that most metabolites [e.g., sphinganine and phosphatidylcholine (PC)(20:5(5Z,8Z,11Z,14Z,17Z)/20:1(11Z))] have positive correlations with serum cholesterol levels. Kyoto Encyclopedia of Gene and Genomes pathway analysis suggests that oat consumption regulated glycerophospholipid, alanine, aspartate and glutamate, sphingolipid, and retinol metabolism. Conclusion Oat consumption has beneficial effects on serum lipids profiles. The underlying mechanisms involve glycerophospholipid, alanine, aspartate and glutamate, sphingolipid, and retinol metabolism in adults.

  • Sweet taste perceptions and preferences may not be associated with food intakes or obesity

    Kamil, A., & Wilson, A. R. (2021). Sweet taste perceptions and preferences may not be associated with food intakes or obesity. Nutrition Today, 56(2), 62-69. doi:10.1097/NT.0000000000000473

     

    Abstract:

    The topic of sweet taste and the relationship to health is one that has been of interest to researchers for many years. Recently, reduced consumption of sweet-tasting foods and beverages, regardless of how they are sweetened (ie, caloric or low/no-calorie sweeteners), has been recommended by some health authorities to encourage reduced sugar consumption. The hypothesized rationale is that human attraction to sweetness could increase the risk of developing less healthy eating patterns. This article summarizes the work presented by Professors Appleton and de Graaf on the topics of sweet taste perceptions and preferences, food intakes and obesity, during an American Society for Nutrition webinar on July 28, 2020, and finds little evidence to support this hypothesis.

  • Temporal dynamics of probiotic Lacticaseibacillus casei and rhamnosus abundance in a fermented dairy product evaluated using a combination of cultivation-dependent and -independent methods

    Berezhnaya, Y., Bikaeva, I.,  Gachkovskaia, A.,  Demidenko, A., . . . Alexeev, D. (2021). Temporal dynamics of probiotic Lacticaseibacillus casei and rhamnosus abundance in a fermented dairy product evaluated using a combination of cultivation-dependent and -independent methods. LWT- Food Science and Technology, 148, 111750. doi:10.1016/j.lwt.2021.111750

     

    Abstract:

    Benchmark of cost-efficient and accurate methods for quantifying probiotics in dairy products represents great interest to the food industry. The advantages of cultivation-independent techniques over the traditionally used cultivation-based ones are to be investigated in this context. We evaluated the levels of Lacticaseibacillus casei and rhamnosus in multiple formulations of a fermented dairy product fortified with these probiotics during the shelf-life using cultivation, taxon-specific qPCR augmented with propidium monoazide (PMA) viability test and 16S rRNA gene sequencing. The analyzed products were the yogurts produced with traditional yogurts starter cultures including Bifidobacteria or without them. The effect of the starter culture on probiotics viability and abundance was assessed. The methods for probiotic profiling were compared. All methods confirmed high levels for the probiotics throughout the shelf-life. The PMA-qPCR showed that their non-viable proportion was low. The formulations with the starter cultures including Streptococcus and Lactobacillus were associated with a lower abundance of each probiotic compared to those that additionally had Bifidobacterium in the starter culture. The total microbial composition according to the sequencing was generally as expected, but the method was of limited use for profiling the probiotic levels due to the data compositionality and dominance of the starter culture taxa.

  • The effect of cereal β-glucan on body weight and adiposity: A review of efficacy and mechanism of action

    Mathews, R., Shete, V., & Chu, Y. (2021). The effect of cereal β-glucan on body weight and adiposity: A review of efficacy and mechanism of action. Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition. doi:10.1080/10408398.2021.1994523

     

    Abstract:

    The current review examines the totality of the evidence to determine if there exists a relationship between βglucan and body weight and adiposity and whether such a relationship is a consistent, causal and plausible one. Observational studies suggest an association between oat (i.e., βglucan) intake and reduced body weight, waist circumference and adiposity. High and moderate quality randomized controlled trials that were specifically designed to evaluate the efficacy of βglucan on anthropometric outcomes were given the highest weight. Several of these studies indicated a causal relationship between βglucan consumption and reduction in body weight, BMI, and at least one measure of body fat within diets that were not calorie-restricted. A review of additional animal and human evidence suggests multiple plausible mechanisms by which βglucan may impact satiety perception, gastric emptying, gut hormones, gut microbiota and short chain fatty acids in the complex interplay of appetite and energy regulation.

  • The effect of oat β-glucan on postprandial blood glucose and insulin responses: A systematic review and meta-analysis

    Zurbau, A., Noronha, J. C., Khan, T. A., Sievenpiper, J. L., & Wolever, T. (2021). The effect of oat β-glucan on postprandial blood glucose and insulin responses: A systematic review and meta-analysis. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 75,1540–1554. doi:10.1038/s41430-021-00875-9

     

    Abstract:

    To determine the effect of oat β‑glucan (OBG) on acute glucose and insulin responses and identify significant effect modifiers we searched the MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane databases through October 27, 2020 for acute, crossover, controlled feeding trials investigating the effect of adding OBG (concentrate or oat-bran) to carbohydrate-containing test-meals compared to comparable or different carbohydrate-matched control-meals in humans regardless of health status. The primary outcome was glucose incremental area-under-the-curve (iAUC). Secondary outcomes were insulin iAUC, and glucose and insulin incremental peak-rise (iPeak). Two reviewers extracted the data and assessed risk-of-bias and certainty-of-evidence (GRADE). Data were pooled using generic inverse-variance with random-effects model and expressed as ratio-of-means with [95% CIs]. We included 103 trial comparisons (N=538). OBG reduced glucose iAUC and iPeak by 23% (0.77 [0.74, 0.81]) and 28% (0.72 [0.64, 0.76]) and insulin by 22% (0.78 [0.72, 0.85]) and 24% (0.76 [0.65, 0.88]), respectively. Dose, molecular-weight, and comparator were significant effect modifiers of glucose iAUC and iPeak. Significant linear dose-response relationships were observed for all outcomes. OBG molecular-weight >300 kg/mol significantly reduced glucose iAUC and iPeak, whereas molecular-weight <300 kg/mol did not. Reductions in glucose iAUC (27 vs 20%, p=0.03) and iPeak (39 vs 25%, p<0.01) were significantly larger with different vs comparable control-meals. Outcomes were similar in participants with and without diabetes. All outcomes had high certainty-of-evidence. In conclusion, current evidence indicates that adding OBG to carbohydrate-containing meals reduces glycaemic and insulinaemic responses. However, the magnitude of glucose reduction depends on OBG dose, molecular-weight, and the comparator.

  • The prebiotic effects of oats on blood lipids, gut microbiota, and short-chain fatty acids in mildly hypercholesterolemic subjects compared with rice: A randomized, controlled trial

    Xu, D., Feng, M., Chu, Y., Wang, S., . . . Yang, Y. (2021). The prebiotic effects of oats on blood lipids, gut microbiota, and short-chain fatty acids in mildly hypercholesterolemic subjects compared with rice: A randomized, controlled trial. Frontiers in Immunology, 12. doi:10.3389/fimmu.2021.787797

     

    Abstract:

    Phytochemicals derived from oats are reported to possess a beneficial effect on modulating dyslipidemia, specifically on lowering total and LDL cholesterol. However, deeper insights into its mechanism remain unclear. In this randomized controlled study, we assigned 210 mildly hypercholesterolemic subjects from three study centers across China (Beijing, Nanjing, and Shanghai) to consume 80 g of oats or rice daily for 45 days. Plasma lipid profiles, short chain fatty acids (SCFAs), and fecal microbiota were measured. The results showed that total cholesterol (TC) and non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (non-HDL-C) decreased significantly with both oats and rice intake after 30 and 45 days. The reduction in TC and non-HDL-C was greater in the participants consuming oats compared with rice at day 45 (p = 0.011 and 0.049, respectively). Oat consumption significantly increased the abundance of Akkermansia muciniphila and Roseburia, and the relative abundance of DialisterButyrivibrio, and Paraprevotella, and decreased unclassified f-Sutterellaceae. In the oat group, Bifidobacterium abundance was negatively correlated with LDL-C (p = 0.01, r = −0.31) and, TC and LDL-C were negatively correlated to Faecalibacterium prausnitzii (p = 0.02, r = −0.29; p = 0.03, r = −0.27,respectively). EnterobacteriaceaeRoseburia, and Faecalibacterium prausnitzii were positively correlated with plasma butyric acid and valeric acid concentrations and negatively correlated to isobutyric acid. HDL-C was negatively correlated with valeric acid (p = 0.02, r = −0.25) and total triglyceride (TG) was positively correlated to isovaleric acid (p = 0.03, r = 0.23). Taken together, oats consumption significantly reduced TC and LDL-C, and also mediated a prebiotic effect on gut microbiome. Akkermansia muciniphilaRoseburiaBifidobacterium, and Faecalibacterium prausnitzii, and plasma SCFA correlated with oat-induced changes in plasma lipids, suggesting prebiotic activity of oats to modulate gut microbiome could contribute towards its cholesterol-lowering effect.

  • The role of oat nutrients in the immune system: A narrative review

    Chen, O., Mah, E., Dioum, E., Marwaha, A., . . . Chu, Y. (2021). The role of oat nutrients in the immune system: A narrative review. Nutrients13(4), 1048. doi:10.3390/nu13041048

     

    Abstract:

    Optimal nutrition is the foundation for the development and maintenance of a healthy immune system. An optimal supply of nutrients is required for biosynthesis of immune factors and immune cell proliferation. Nutrient deficiency/inadequacy and hidden hunger, which manifests as depleted nutrients reserves, increase the risk of infectious diseases and aggravate disease severity. Therefore, an adequate and balanced diet containing an abundant diversity of foods, nutrients, and non-nutrient chemicals is paramount for an optimal immune defense against infectious diseases, including cold/flu and non-communicable diseases. Some nutrients and foods play a larger role than others in the support of the immune system. Oats are a nutritious whole grain and contain several immunomodulating nutrients. In this narrative review, we discuss the contribution of oat nutrients, including dietary fiber (β-glucans), copper, iron, selenium, and zinc, polyphenolics (ferulic acid and avenanthramides), and proteins (glutamine) in optimizing the innate and adaptive immune system’s response to infections directly by modulating the innate and adaptive immunity and indirectly by eliciting changes in the gut microbiota and related metabolites.

  • Trends in vitamin C consumption in the United States: 1999–2018

    Brauchla, M., Dekker, M. J., & Rehm, C. D. (2021). Trends in vitamin C consumption in the United States: 1999–2018. Nutrients, 13(2), 420. doi:10.3390/nu13020420

     

    Abstract:

    Low intakes of fruits and vegetables have resulted in suboptimal intakes of several micronutrients, including vitamin C. This cross-sectional study used data from 84,902 children/adults (≥1 y) who completed a 24-h dietary recall as part of the United States National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (1999–2018). Mean vitamin C intakes from foods/beverages were calculated as were trends in major food/beverage sources of vitamin C. Percentages below the Estimated Average Requirement (EAR) were estimated. Overall, mean vitamin C consumption declined by 23% (97–75 mg/d; p-value for trend < 0.001). 100% fruit juice was the leading source of vitamin C (25.6% of total or 21.7mg/d), but this declined by 48% (25–13 mg/d; p-value for trend < 0.001). Whole fruit increased among children/adolescents (+75.8%;10–17 mg/d; p-value for trend < 0.001), but not adults, while the vegetable contribution was generally unchanged. The proportion of the population below the EAR increased by 23.8% on a relative scale or 9 percentage points on an absolute scale (38.3–47.4%). Declines in vitamin C intake is driven largely by decreases in fruit juice coupled with modest increases in whole fruit. Due to associations between vitamin C intake and numerous health outcomes these trends warrant careful monitoring moving forward.

  • Understanding whole grain awareness and consumption in select Indian cohorts

    Madan, J., Hussain, N., Joshi, S., Mehra, J., . . . Thomas, J. (2021). Understanding whole grain awareness and consumption in select Indian cohorts. Journal Indian Medical Association, 119(1), 88-94.

     

    Abstract:

    Background and Introduction: Grains are an integral part of Indian diet. Carbohydrates constitute to 60-70% of total daily calorie intake and grains are the key carbohydrate source. Including whole grains(WG) in the diet for its health benefits is recommended in dietary guidance around the world. There is consistent evidence to support existence of barriers to WG consumption in Indian population but limited evidence assessing their level of awareness and knowledge on WG. Thus, an independent survey was designed for assessing the level of awareness and consumption of WG amongst millennials and nutritionist and dieticians. Data collection and analysis: Tool employed was self-developed questionnaire. SPSS software and MS Excel were used for analysing data. Results: Only 2% of the surveyed millennials were aware of all aspects of WG. Nutritionists and dieticians showed better responses than millennials. Daily WG consumption in millennials was less than 10% (42 g/day) compared to total grain consumption (432g/day) across food categories. 50% nutritionists and dieticians consume oats for breakfast. Conclusion: Results highlight the importance of raising awareness on the knowledge and consumption of WG amongst urban Indian millennials. It also emphasises the need of national recommendations, encouraging consumers to make half of their total grain consumption as WG. A WG stamp from FSSAI for identification of products with considerable amount of WG and campaigns with public-private partnership supported by nutritionist, dietitians, culinary experts can further help in attaining the goal of a WG rich “Sustainable Healthy Diet” for a healthy living

  • Yogurt fortified with vitamins and probiotics impacts the frequency of upper respiratory tract infections but not gut microbiome: A multicenter double-blind placebo controlled randomized study

    Odintsova, V., Klimenko, N., Tyakht, A., Volokh, O., . . . Berezhnaya, Y. (2021). Yogurt fortified with vitamins and probiotics impacts the frequency of upper respiratory tract infections but not gut microbiome: A multicenter double-blind placebo controlled randomized study. Journal of Functional Foods, 83, 104572. doi:10.1016/j.jff.2021.104572

     

    Abstract:

    Probiotics and vitamins can impact immune responses and modulate gut microbiome. We evaluated the effects of consuming a yogurt fortified with vitamins and probiotic Lacticaseibacillus casei and rhamnosus on upper respiratory tract infections frequency and gut microbiome during a 3-month intervention. The study included 2 case groups (consuming different flavours) and a placebo group of healthy adults (n = 158–160 in each group). The effects on URTI-related parameters in both case groups were gender-specific. The female subjects had lower URTI incidence and frequency, while for the males no significant differences were found. The URTI duration was shorter in one of the probiotic groups for females and in both such groups - for males. The observed changes in microbiome composition, blood and stool parameters were not different from those observed in the placebo group. Consumption of fortified fermented dairy foods is promising for improving immunity status within the general population.

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Index